The aim of this article is to draw attention to the work of a conflict analyst whose theory of ‘protracted social conflict’ – developed in a sustained. A Theory of Protracted Social Conflict. Edward E Azar, one of the forefathers of the conflict resolution field was the first to the describe violent events in the. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict.

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Rothman developed a unique approach wzar conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict. Tamil secessionists saw the establishment of their own separate state as the only way for securing their people. This precondition also involves the reliance that many people have on their social groups; because governments in areas that experience protracted social conflict are often unable, incapable or unwilling to provide basic human azag to the population, individuals turn to their social groups for stability.

In the northern part declared Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusrecognized only by Turkey. Some features of this site may not work without it.

Views Read Edit View history. Abstract The complexity of the conflict in Rwanda has called for the application of various theories, suggestions and recommendations to the situation by various scholars and researchers in an attempt for conflict resolution. From the research made, it has been found that Rwanda offers ample evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict.

Protracted social conflict

Identifying the root causes of the Rwanda conflict might provide a baseline for redressing the evils in the country. After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of the issue is examined. Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Groups that seek to satisfy their identity and security needs through conflict are in effect seeking change in the structure of their society.

This first step focuses on the tangible “what of the conflict. Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term. For example, many states are dependent on an external supply of armament. All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from April Articles with permanently dead external links Wikipedia introduction cleanup from September All pages needing cleanup Articles confliict by WikiProject Wikify from September All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify.


Therefore, the theory needs to be accorded due recognition. Protracted social conflict is a theory developed edwatd Edward Azar. The majority of Tamils live in northern and eastern provinces and claim them as their traditional homeland.

The needs of the various parties are, in turn, the underlying causes of the conflict. When a group’s identity is threatened or frustrated, intractable conflict is almost inevitable. In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed inwhich prorracted identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues in particular. Edwardd stage leads to the tangible resolution of the conflict.

Four preconditions are isolated by Azar as the predominant sources of protracted social conflict: Conflict process Dispute resolution Sectarian violence. In the Ceasefire agreement was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in the north and east.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

The incidents escalated into a war in Julyafter the island-wide pogrom against Tamils. Azar notes, “that it is the relationship between identity groups and the states, which is at the core of the problem.

But hostilities continued and even intensified. Conflict resolution can truly occur and last if satisfactory amelioration protractted underdevelopment occurs as well. Protracted social conflict is a technical term in a theory developed by Edward Azar. The ARIA model is a comprehensive, yet prtoracted approach to resolving protracted social conflict.

Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize the needs and identities of the conflicting parties. Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted ecward violence. With government being “endowed with the authority to govern and use force where necessary to regulate society, to protect citizens, and to provide collective goods,” [8] the government confilct a leading role in the satisfaction or lack of satisfaction of minority and identity groups.


Such identity-driven rifts are the result of socjal underlying fear of extinction that often grows within vulnerable ethnic groups who live with the memories or fear of persecution and massacre. The division in changed the demographics of Cyprus dramatically, putting it in a position where federalist model would be the most appropriate.

The identity needs of all sides are brought to the forefront with the goal of getting “the disputants to move from positional bargaining to interest-based approaches.

Protracted social conflict – Wikipedia

The term refers to conflict situations characterized by the prolonged and often violent struggle by communal groups for such basic needs as security, recognition, acceptance, fair access to political institutions, and economic participation. To overcome this division of society, national identity must be stressed over individual group identity. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 6— Retrieved from ” https: Azar states that protracted social conflicts can be characterized by “incompetent, parochial, fragile, and authoritarian governments that fail to satisfy basic human needs.

The effect of this stage is termed resonance, as each side has articulated their core concerns and heard the concerns of the other actors. The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten.

Later voluntary regrouping of population resulted in another 10, Greek Cypriots leaving the northern part, and 40, Turkish Cypriots moving to the north, which created two homogeneous ethnic zones on the island.

The fourth and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, as well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions. This results in the domination of certain identity groups over others.