It’s a model to describe large signal behaviour of a transistor, and start with the simple notion of two back to back diodes. For example the diodes seen at the two . It can be shown that (see S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices), therefore . where. More Complete Ebers-Moll Model. Model includes configurational. Ideal transistor model. Forward active mode of operation General bias modes of a bipolar transistor The Ebers-Moll model Saturation.

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Potentiometer digital Variable capacitor Varicap. Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits. This page was last edited on 31 Decemberat For a diode with voltage V applied between its terminals, the current flowing through the junction in terms of applied voltage between its terminals is given by.

Because of the known temperature and current dependence of the forward-biased base—emitter junction voltage, the BJT can be used to measure temperature by subtracting two voltages at two different bias currents in a known ratio. For other uses, see Junction transistor disambiguation. The BJT remains a device that excels in some applications, such as discrete circuit design, due to the very wide selection of BJT types available, and because of its high transconductance and output resistance compared to MOSFETs.

Calculate the emitter efficiency, the base transport factor, and the current gain of the transistor biased in the forward active mode. An NPN transistor comprises two semiconductor junctions that share a thin p-doped region, and a PNP transistor comprises two semiconductor junctions that share a thin n-doped region. General bias modes of a bipolar transistor While the forward active mode of operation is the most useful bias mode when using a bipolar junction transistor as an amplifier, one cannot ignore the other bias modes especially when using the device as a digital switch.

For example, in the typical grounded-emitter configuration of an NPN BJT used as a pulldown switch in digital logic, the “off” state never involves a reverse-biased junction because the base voltage never goes below ground; nevertheless the forward bias is close enough to zero that essentially no current flows, so this end of the forward active region can be regarded as the cutoff region.


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The improved injection of carriers into the base allows the base to have a higher doping level, resulting in lower resistance to access moodel base electrode. For the CE topology, an approximate h-parameter model is commonly used which further simplifies the circuit analysis. Capacitor types Ceramic resonator Crystal oscillator Inductor Parametron Relay reed relay mercury switch. Saturation is therefore avoided in high-speed bipolar logic circuits.

The emitter efficiency defined by equation 5.

The current equations derived above is modwl in terms of a model shown in the figure. The emitter efficiency is obtained from: Most transistors, however, have poor emitter efficiency under reverse active bias since the collector doping density is typically much less than the base doping density to ensure high base-collector breakdown voltages.

Bipolar junction transistor – Wikipedia

Mol proportion of electrons able to cross the base and reach the collector is a measure of the BJT efficiency. The saturation voltage equals: It will be obvious that why two diodes connected back to back will not function as a transistor from the following discussion, as dependent current source term will be missing which is responsible for all the interesting properties of transistor. Each semiconductor region is connected to a terminal, appropriately labeled: That is, a PNP transistor is “on” when its base is pulled low relative to the emitter.

Saturation also implies that a large amount of minority carrier charge is accumulated in the base region.

Ebers-moll model of transistor

These equations are based on the transport model for a bipolar junction transistor. The model can be quite accurate for low-frequency circuits and can easily be adapted for higher-frequency circuits with the addition of appropriate inter-electrode capacitances and other parasitic elements. The collector—emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base—emitter current current controlor by the base—emitter voltage voltage control.


For the noll case where the base-emitter and base-collector voltage are the same and the base doping is uniform, there can be no minority carrier diffusion in the base so that: Simplified cross section of a planar NPN bipolar junction transistor.

As well, as the base is lightly doped in comparison to the emitter and collector regionsrecombination rates are low, beers more carriers to diffuse across the base region. Because base—emitter voltage varies as the logarithm of the base—emitter and collector—emitter currents, a BJT can also be used to compute logarithms and anti-logarithms. It is this gain that allows BJTs to be used as the building blocks of electronic amplifiers.

The minority carrier lifetime moel the base is 10 ns. Usually the emitter is composed of a larger bandgap material than the base. Semiconductor Device Modeling with Spice. In the discussion below, focus is on the NPN bipolar transistor. The quasi-neutral region width in the emitter is 1 m m and 0.

Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistors

All possible bias modes are illustrated with Figure 5. The regions of a BJT are called emittercollectorand base. In an NPN transistor, when positive bias is applied to the base—emitter junction, the equilibrium is disturbed between the thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the n-doped emitter depletion region.

The values of the minority carrier densities at the edges of the depletion regions are indicated on the Figure 5.