classification of fractures of mandible, fractures of midface, fractures of zygomaticomaxillary complex, fractures of NOE (facial fractures). Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, also known as a tripod, tetrapod, quadripod, malar or thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems. ZMC complex fracture. Tripod fx Right zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture with disruption of the lateral orbital wall, orbital floor, zygomatic arch and maxillary sinus. The zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, also known as a quadripod fracture, quadramalar Classification. D · ICD .
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On radiographic evaluation, typically with dedicated CT imaging with multiplanar reformats, the following three fracture components are generally identified:. No matter to which of the two classification archetypes is resorted to, attention must be paid to the clinical status of the medial canthal ligament.
Fracture Coding and Topographical Distribution Fractures of the midface are identified with the two-digit code 92 1 followed by a letter identifying the involved divisions. Traumatic bone loss, also referred to as bone defect dapplies to deficits ranging from small fragments to large sections.
In most cases, there is loss of sensation in the cheek and upper lip due to infraorbital nerve injury. The place of bone grafting and plate fixation.
On physical exam, the fracture appears as a loss of cheek projection with increased width of the face.
Classification and treatment of zygomatic fractures: a review of 1, cases.
Displacement of these fragments can be defined according to the six degrees of freedom by the translation and rotation, or planar and spherical movement of the fragments. The surgical one-stage management of combined cranio-maxillo-facial and frontobasal fractures.
Involvement confined to anterior orbital section and midorbit—anterolateral inferior and lateral fragments in juxtaposition to inferior orbital fissure. Br J Plast Surg. Naso-orbito-ethmoidal fracture bilateral Example 1. Concomitant NOE fractures predict a higher incidence of post operative deformity. Each pterygoid process can be classified as fractured. Fractures of the pterygoid processes accompanying severe facial bone injury.
This will hopefully foster a better understanding of the individual mapping of fractures that is necessary to establish a detailed treatment plan for a patient.
Classification and treatment of zygomatic fractures: a review of 1,025 cases.
Three-dimensional clsasification computed tomographic scans A frontal view, B lateral view left, and C oblique lateral view right. In addition to the vertical atrophy, the bone dimensions of edentulous portions of the maxilla decrease in a transverse or horizontal direction. The zygomaticomaxillary suture is less often separated by a single linear crack but by multiple fragments.
Dingman R O, Natvig P. The tips of the tooth roots may be completely enclosed within the fractured block, or they may protrude over the fracture line or even be snapped off and left stuck in the bony base cranial to the fractured block. The applied scheme for dental status is purposely limited to record the presence or absence of teeth Figs.
The AOCMF pf fracture classification system was developed in the form of a hierarchical three-level system with increasing details and complexity. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. Spezielle Frakturen- und Luxationslehre. There is a close interrelationship between the fracture components and the displacement of midface fractures Figs.
Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture – Wikipedia
Fracture Involvement of the Alveolar Process Alveolar process fractures are documented similarly to the mandible. Fracture involvement of edentulous alveolar process portions is marked in approximation to prior tooth position.
Nomenclature of frontobasal trauma: W1 im 2 imOrbit left: W1 slim 2 slim. In the level 2 midface classification system, the zygoma and the zygomatic arch have been addressed as a single anatomic region.
Lateral cranio-orbital facial injury: W1 li 2 li.
Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture
Fgactures pterygoid processes are regarded as self-contained anatomical regions and not as parts of the sphenoid bone.
Panfacial fracture including lower central midface fracture analogous to Hemi Le Fort I fracture. To carry out extrapolations on the trauma, severity necessitates retraceable correlations to a multitude of variables and factors such as bone quantity and quality, associated soft-tissue zc, functional impairment, age, physical or psychic comorbidities, quality-of-life issues and social reintegration, what imposes considerable constraints to a simple data acquisition, and reproducible documentation.
D ICD – An alternative pathway to outline the en bloc zygoma fracture prototype is to select the subregions separately.