Bruce Reichenbach has formulated a fairly typical version of the. Thomist cosmological argument based on the principle of efficient causality.1 More recently. be advanced against my version of the cosmological argument, 2 two of which 2 Bruce R. Reichenbach, The Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment. Cosmological Argument. Bruce Reichenbach. The cosmological argument is less a particular argument than an argument type. It uses a general pattern of.

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The actual world, which will be called ais a set of propositions, namely all the propositions that would be true were a to be actualized, which we are assuming actually to be the case.

Swinburne goes on to argue that a personal explanation in terms of God satisfies condition 2 because of its simplicity. Since the past events of a beginningless series can be conceptually collected together and numbered, the series is a determinate totality Critics contend that we have no reason to think that just because something is finite it must have a cause of its coming into existence.

Craig uses a similar, intuitive notion of “smaller than” in his argument concerning the library. And until such reasons are produced Hume has a right to trust it.

Explanation and the Cosmological Argument

The central thesis of the oscillating theory has been countered by recent discoveries that the expansion of the universe is actually speeding up.

In finite sets, but not necessarily in infinite sets, when set B is a proper subset of AB is smaller than A. This unique singularity constitutes the beginning of the universe—of matter, energy, space, time, and all physical laws. The most controversial premise of the argument is 2. That the universe once exploded into existence provides no evidence that the event could reoccur once, if not an infinite number of times, should the universe collapse.


It is a being that exists in all possible worlds. One can neither count to nor traverse the infinite Craig and Sinclair It is not clear, however, that the second contention is an essential part of the cosmological argument.

It is true that, given Heisenberg’s principle of uncertainty, we cannot precisely predict individual subatomic events. It follows that the library contains as many red books as the total books in its collection, and as many red books as black books, and as many red books as red and black books combined.

Cosmological Argument (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Summer Edition)

The events in the subatomic realm are far from simply explained. However, as Craig points out, although this may weaken the argument were the objection sound, it is not fatal to it unless there is argumnet reason to think that premise 1 actually is false.

We addressed objections to the Causal Principle from a philosophical perspective earlier in 3.

Hence, if anything argu,ent to occur unexplained, it would be God, not the universe. Swinburne78 Pruss and Swinburne argue that the kind of explanation required by the PSR is a complete explanation.

It uses a general pattern of argumentation logos that makes an inference from particular alleged facts about the universe cosmos to the existence of a unique being, generally identified with or referred to as God. Thus, q is identical with the proposition that that there exists a necessary supernatural being who is a very powerful and intelligent creator-designer of the universe, and therefore the latter can be substituted for the former.

In a complete explanation, every aspect of the explanandum and explanans at the time of the occurrence is accounted for; nothing puzzling remains. The strong version holds that.

Therefore, the temporal series of events cannot be an actual infinite Craig As Aquinas noted, the philosophical arguments for God’s existence are compatible with the eternity of the universe On the Eternity of the World.


Premise 4 is true by virtue of the Principle of Excluded Middle: A prioritheism is perhaps very unlikely, but it is far more likely than any rival supposition. Without such presuppositions, science itself would be undercut; utilization of the principles best accounts for the success of science, and indeed, for any investigatory endeavor Koons. The Nonpersonal God Objection. Typology of Cosmological Arguments Philosophers employ diverse classifications of the cosmological arguments.

Craig is well aware of the fact that he is using actual and potential infinite in a way that differs from the traditional usage in Aristotle and Aquinas. If we are looking for a causal explanation and accept a full explanation in terms of contemporary or immediately prior causal conditions and the relevant natural laws or intentions that together necessitate the effectthe answer emerges from an analysis of the relevant immediate causal conditions present in each case. More recently, Craig argues that.

If from another, then we have an unsatisfactory infinite regress of explanations.

A quantum vacuum is not nothing as in Newtonian physics but. He refuses to take sides on the debate between explanations, except to say that science cannot provide an adequate explanation if the explanatory chain reichfnbach infinite, for the chain of causes is itself contingent or it ends in an initial contingency not scientifically accountable.

Smith, Quentin, Critiques of the cosmological argument.

Cosmological Argument

Richard Taylor99— and others argue that the universe meaning everything that ever existedas contingent, needs explanation. For the sake of brevity, reichrnbach crucial steps have had to been omitted. The first is conditional necessity: