API RP 2FB PDF

API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.

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In some cases this can lead to ignoring the low probability high consequence events. The methodology adopted was to conduct a risk assessment for a typical fp to arrive at the sound cost estimate for the fire protection systems. This recommended practice is intended to assist in development of a management program designed to promote safety and environmental protection during the performance of offshore oil and gas and sulphur operations.

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Some packages can also potentially capture contact, brittle and ductile behaviour of the structure. However for existing installations remedial measures may be required to demonstrate robustness of the installation and changes to inventory profile may also require some remedials.

You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Projects with accelerated engineering, procurement, and construction EPC schedules are becoming common in the oil and gas industry with Oil Majors keen on quick and guaranteed returns on investment.

Some examples of this include the common practice of sniping secondary beams to minimise weld distortions when attached to webs of plate girders as part of the deck. Subsequently, frequency analysis was conducted using parts count methodology to cumulate the frequency apo fire scenarios. This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of electrical systems on fixed and floating petroleum facilities located offshore when hazardous locations are classified as Zone 0, Zone 1, or Zone 2.

The basic function of a FPS is to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a practical approach to the cost estimation of fire protection systems during bidding stage using Simplified Risk Assessment SRA methodologies. Health and Safety Executive.

Advanced rl Show search help. Sheriff’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition. Single degree of freedom models This method is often described as simple because of the simplicity of f2b idealisation and the fact you can obtain a response time history using a spreadsheet hence conducting parametric studies which are useful for apu different pressure time histories.

Log in to your subscription Username. Some guidance from onshore petrochemical guidelines existed but this was not r; appropriate for offshore applications. This can potentially lead to larger gas cloud sizes as they would not be limited by the volume of the module as on a fixed topside.

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It emphasizes the need to train personnel in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and r; esta Health and Safety Executive Report, Proceedings of an international conference Subsea Controls and Data Acquisition ‘ A – switch to normal size A – switch to large size A – switch to larger size.

The magnitude of the explosion loads for which the installation is designed should reflect the residual risks to persons on the installation from explosion in line with the ALARP principle.

The failure history of large ocean going vessels is a significant cause of concern in the shipping industry.

Safety critical elements Structural elements and systems are used in provision of control and barriers for explosions and are likely to be designated safety critical elements. This was sponsored by 28 companies and the Health and safety Executive in order to improve understanding in the characteristics of hydrocarbon fires and explosions.

As a consequence there is the potential for an improvement in QRA models.

Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points Non-linear finite element analysis The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.

Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 1: If an installation is one that is in a high risk category which is relying heavily on ductility, this is the only technique which, if the model is extensive enough, can capture the interaction between the structural members and the true ductility of the structural system. Little consideration had therefore been given to explosion scenarios on many older fixed structures. Publishers Content Coverage Privacy. Duty holders must demonstrate that structures have sufficient robustness to ensure a low probability of catastrophic failure when subjected to accidental explosions.

This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of electrical systems on fixed and floating petroleum facilities located offshore.

Technical policy relating to structural behaviour under explosion hazards

Older platforms may also have higher frequency of releases as pai result of ageing which will increase the likelihood of leaks due to corrosion and fatigue issues. The advantages of adopting this methodology based on SRA approach are deemed to be well-suited for bidding phase, where the time and cost of carrying out detailed risk analysis is not feasible. Full scale tests on realistic modules and congestion confinement levels carried out on joint industry projects have shown that the severity of the threat is more severe and complex than originally envisaged.

A key area which requires detailed consideration are the structural details which would perform adequately under static loading but become brittle and possibly xpi under a dynamic loading consideration. The potential for an accidental release of a hydrocarbon mixture is ever present on hydrocarbon carrying installations and, if ignited, could lead to a serious incident involving loss of 2b, loss of the asset and environmental damage.

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However the QRA process is quite complex and can be demanding which tends to limit the QRA by concentrating on representative scenarios. This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of new piping systems on production platforms located offshore. As a result of this, little attention was given to design strategies dealing with explosion scenarios.

Risk level Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion spi confinement.

Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 2: Rl and Design of Profiled Blast Walls. Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the GEE JIP project which resulted in the publication of an important handbook.

Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U. The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation.

Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area. Ap Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area.

International Journal of Impact EngineeringVol.

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Resources Technical policy relating to seismic event hazards Jack-up self-elevating installations: These have been shown to act as stress raisers and potential failure sources, even at low pressures.

This publication serves as a guide for those who are concerned with the design and construction of new platforms and for the relocation of existing platforms used for the drilling, development, and storage of hyd Far higher pressures have been measured in testing, capable of causing serious structural damage similar to that which led to an escalation of events on Piper Alpha.

Remedial actions Retrofit of barriers usually blast walls to existing installations plays a major part in reducing the risk and achieving ALARP criteria for accidental explosion events.